Philosophical Discussion

Time to Formulate the Laws and Hypotheses of Psychic Science

by Robert G. Howard, PhD and Daniel E. Kelleher, MD

Abstract. An objective of this article is to prove the feasibility of formulating laws and hypotheses of psychic science by physicists, psychologists and neuroscientists. Another objective is to introduce the mental constructs of a second dimension of time as psychic phenomena with mathematical descriptions. The article also discusses how psychical science is shunned by most practitioners of psychology, physics, and neuroscience.

1. Building a bridge between the practitioners of psychical science and practitioners of physics, psychology, and neuroscience

An objective of this article is to prove the feasibility of formulating laws and hypotheses of psychic science by physicists, psychologists and neuroscientists. Another objective is to introduce the mental constructs of a second dimension of time as psychic phenomena with mathematical descriptions.

This article emphasizes the similarities between the research into psychic states and research into physical phenomena. The emphasis opens an entrance to the inner chambers of the science of psychic phenomena. The entrance does not require sacrifice of the objectivity of the scientific method. Hence, it does not threaten us with being torn from the roots in our education and tradition in science. The entrance allows us to continue our atmosphere of seeking, suffering, and striving common to all people, especially scientists.

The experiment of becoming conscious of the underlying Reality unites the many specialized cultures of science. Religion, spiritual questing, and psychic introspection were the methods used in the past to become conscious or Reality. The Buddha explained how a spiritual quest can achieve higher states of realization through introspection, correct action and other means (Buddha (1995) p.899). Sagan explained at length how he used science in a common task of realizing the highest potential in the material and spiritual world in The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God (Sagan (2007) p. xvii). The neuroscientific pursuit of clearly realizing the nature of the connection between brain and mind ought to take place through the development of all possible elements of our psyche. The pursuit requires the development of all the data available through the development of the scientific method in the study of psychic science. Research into psychic states is as valid as research into physics, psychology and neuroscience. Questions about physics are part of the cause for Schommers, to consider the similarities between physics and the metaphysics of psychical science in The Visible and the Invisible: Matter and Mind in Physics (Schommers (1998 ) p.17). Schrödinger questioned the underlying and widely accepted concept of continuity of length and number sets (Schrödinger (1951) p.21 58). The point is that the world described by science is not complete, nor is it claimed to be complete.

Carl Jung wrote in Psyche and Symbol, “Science is the tool of the Western mind ... and only obscures our insight when it holds that the understanding given by it is the only kind there is." -Jung (1931) p.303). This obscuration can be extended to include the refusal of many science practitioners to research the enormous database of psychic phenomena. Jung wrote, “We could relegate it to the obscure territory of faith and superstition. But in this way we lose sight of the realism of [the Buddha and ancient Chinese introspection]. These ancient texts [and the psychic database of the past 100 years] do not consist of exaggerated sentiment or overwrought mystical intuitions bordering on the pathological and emanating from ascetic cranks and recluses.” Jung (1931)p.303).

Consider how limited and limiting is the scientific approach. The human mind tends to conceptualize based on the personal and the collective history of the local culture. It is useful for everyday affairs. One feature of the discriminating mind is that it cognizes multiplicity, breaking the world into parts without direct perception of unity. This leads to the bias of fragmented awareness. Social and cultural identity leads to an emotional tendency to narrowness of view. This leads to artificial separation of each individual person from other people, from the external world, from the brain, and from the thought processes. The scientific process leads to this fragmentation and to conflict between scientists from differing scientific cultures.

Cleary commented on this limited scientific mind set in “Understanding Reality” in The Taoist Classics, “...Taoist teachings are addressed to those in whom the discriminating mind has developed into a jealous tyrant which seeks to exclude or discount knowledge not within its range...” (Chang Po Tuan (1999)p.21). This same classic text advocates “... harmonization of the individual within the social environment ... social ethics are helpful in reducing psychic and physical wear on everyone...” (Chang Po Tuan (1999) p.23)

An approach which leads to cooperation is to will oneself to perceive all people as part of oneself, to perceive the whole world, the brain, and the thought processes as an integrated whole. This approach, of working closely with other scientists, leads to a rich wisdom of the natural order, and an understanding of the underlying Reality.

There exists a vast literature of psychic phenomena in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, the Journal of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies and other scientific publications. This is the result of over 100 years of data recorded mostly, but not all, in objective scientific method by rigorous science practitioners for which we do not have the slightest justification for undervaluing.  Jung wrote, “...the strangeness of the material is so arresting that our embarrassment as to how and where the Chinese world of thought [including psychic phenomena] might be joined with ours is quite understandable... Jung (1931)p.304). This article will join the methods of mathematics, physics, and the instructions of the Buddhist scientists (Howard and Kelleher (2008) p. 25ff) to suggest a method of formulating a law based on the psychic database.

Let us take our guidance from Jung, “In such matters, everything depends on the man and little or nothing on the means [method of science] ... the [scientific] method is merely the path taken by the man. The way he acts is the true expression of his nature. If it ceases to be this, then the [scientific] method is nothing more than an affectation, something artificially added and rootless serving only the illegitimate goal of self deception. Science then becomes a means of fooling oneself and evading what may be the implacable law of one’s being. This is far removed from the earthborn quality and sincerity of Chinese thought [and the psychic scientist]. On the contrary, it is the denial of one's own being, self betrayal to strange gods and cowardly tricks for the purpose of usurping and psychic superiority... The Secret of the Golden Flower has insights coming from the ancient cultural life of China... from the deepest instincts ... It is a question of building up our Western culture ... by directing the gaze inward".   Jung (1931) p.304).

By introspection, we can realize, as a mental construct based on experience, the highest potential. The neuroscientific pursuit of clearly realizing the nature of the connection between brain and mind will help us to perceive all people as part of oneself, to perceive the whole world, the brain, and the thought processes as an integrated whole. We can realize our ability to perceive a fundamental reality, understand the relationship of the brain to the mind, grasp the laws of psychic phenomena, and to perceive more than one dimension of time.

Later, this article will address the psychic phenomena of time by formulating perceptions of time mathematically. The reader can experience the additional dimension of time by introspection, turning the gaze inward and turning it to a right angle.

2. Psychic science is qualified to be accepted for serious research with the objective of formulating laws and hypotheses

How did psychic science become ignored by most of the other sciences? This is one of the great questions. Grand discoveries and revelations come from questions. Sagan gave one of the answers in “Extraterrestrial Folklore: Implications for the Evolution of Religion.” Fraudulent claims of psychic phenomena and religious miracles, which give Psychic science the cast of delusion and dishonesty (Sagan (2007) p. 137 145).

If we ask accurate and appropriate questions we stimulate accurate and stimulating answers. Consider the opposite, a logically confused and inappropriate question, “How and when did the universe begin?” This question assumes that time exists, that there was a time of beginning and a method which the universe began and implies a preconceived definition of the universe. Any of these assumptions is relevant for many mental constructs. They do not make sense when combined into a single question. But they are not relevant to the universe which is itself a vague notion as explained by Sagan in “Nature and Wonder: A Reconnaissance of Heaven” (Sagan (2007), and he does not include the even more vague “dark matter.” Our scientific culture assumes the framework of time. Whorf points out in, Language, Thought, and Reality that the original American Hopi tribe would not ask this question because they do not have the concept of time or the language for it (Whorf (1956)p. 58). Time may be a mental construct, a psychic phenomenon. The assumptions embodied in the above question limit the range of answers. Such a question may be nonsense. Therefore, answers to it may be nonsense.

What are the differences between science and religion? This question has resulted in arguments for hundreds of years starting with Galileo. A better question may be, “What are the similarities between science and religion? This results in constructive cohesive cooperation. Fritjof Capra, in The Turning Point, pulled an answer to this question from the ancient peoples, “...from the time of the ancients, the goals of science had been wisdom, understanding the natural order, and living in harmony with it. Science was pursued for the glory of God or, as the Chinese put it, to follow natural order and flow with the current of the Tao.” See also Capra’s book, The Tao of Physics: An Exploration of the Parallels between Modern Physics and Eastern Mysticism. Scientists invented scientific dogma. One such dogma is that everything not falsifiable or verifiable, and unsensed by the extremely limited senses of a human being, and unmeasurable, is fantasy and delusion. The three characteristics with which psychic science are labeled are: one, unfalsifiable or unverifiable, two, unsensed and three, unmeasurable. These characteristics are some of the objections given to categorize psychic science as unscientific. This article will show how these characteristics also describe twentieth century physics. Thus the labels are not appropriate.

Clearly, some topics are left in confusion by science, others appear to be treated only by religious groups, and some are disputed by both. In any case, psychic science was put in the category with religion, spirit, and quackery. One point of view that resulted from the scientific revolution is that psychic phenomena and religion have been largely labeled as delusion and fantasy.

However, there has been a trend in physics and other sciences for several years toward openness to new research. This openness is summed up in, What the Bleep Do We Know: Discovering the Endless Possibilities for Altering Your Everyday Reality (Arntz, Chasse, Vicente (2005)) and the movie by the same name. Other books raising questions about including more topics in the formal sciences are listed at the end of this article. Schrödinger described “the ‘principle of objectivation’ called the ‘hypothesis of the real world’... wherein we exclude the Subject of Cognizance from the domain of nature... We step with our own person back into the part of an onlooker who does not belong to the world [This is the Long View introduced below], which by this very procedure becomes an objective world ... whereby we have cut ourselves off from an adequate understanding of the Subject of Cognizance, of the mind. But I do believe our present way of thinking does need to be amended, perhaps by a transfusion from Eastern thought.” (Schrödinger (1958) p. 37,54)

3. Now is the time for framing the laws and formulating the hypotheses for psychical science based on the data.

Now is the time for recognizing the practical need for expanding our wisdom by turning inward to psychic science. Now we are ready to follow the path of psychic science toward understanding the natural order and the technology of the spirit. We do not include truth that is based on divine revelation. Consider how physical science has become un-falsifiable or unverifiable, un-sensed and un-measurable. These are characteristics similar to psychical science.

Physical scientists of the twentieth century converted the extreme materialism of science into quantum theories, which were barely believable, even by the prominent physicists. To a layperson, quantum theory seems surreal. If we probe into the nature of matter, quantum theory declares that it disappears into empty space and energy, nothing else. This contradicts the everyday observation that when one sits down on a chair, one does not fall through the hypothetically non-existent mass or wave motion in the vacuum of which one’s body and the chair are composed. Physicists are in the habit of describing the world mathematically but not in terms of sense data such as the feeling of sitting in a chair which is an experience in the mind. The math describes ideas of field, energy, length information, and time. These mathematical ideas are axioms and cannot be defined in a more fundamental way. They are intuitive mental constructs similar to psychic phenomena.

Neuroscience research has yielded two vague mental constructs: consciousness and intelligence. People relate to these two constructs in a spiritual way; they are revered as sacred. They are also un-falsifiable or un-verifiable, un-measurable. Psychic science is related in some way to these two constructs. Faced with these facts of the trend in science, how can psychic science be ignored as un-falsifiable or un-verifiable, un-sensed and un-measurable? In fact, many people actually sense psychic phenomena. Others observe the verifiable motion or the effects of physical matter being affected by psychic phenomena. Many records are archived showing measured experiments of psychic phenomena. These phenomena are more believable than the Higgs Boson, the so called God Particle being sought in the cathedral of twentieth century science called the Large Hadron Collider (The Economist). They are less fantastic than matter being composed of a vacuum.

4. How ancient Chinese concepts ofpsychic phenomena, specifically in the Secret of the Golden Flower, merit scientific acceptance

The basic tenet of Secret of the Golden Flower, (Unknown (1931)) is that the psyche and the cosmos [ultimate Reality of the Buddhist Dharmakaya] are related as inner and outer worlds. This tenet is defended by Carl Jung, the psychiatrist, in his commentary on the Secret of the Golden Flower Jung (1958) p.302 350) “I can understand the paradoxes of primitive beliefs in terms of ethnology or the comparative history of religions. This is the Western way of hiding one’s heart under the cloak of so called scientific understanding. We do it partly because of the miserable vanity des savants [miserable vanity of the wise] which fears and rejects with horror any sign of living sympathy and partly because a sympathetic understanding might permit contact with an alien spirit to become a serious experience. So called scientific objectivity would have reserved this text for the philological acuity of sinologues and would have guarded it jealously from any other interpretation.” This vanity, fear and rejection is also observed in relation to the vast database of psychic phenomena which has been scientifically collected for over 100 years. 

Krishnamurti pointed the way to accepting the validity of psychic phenomena in To Be Human, with the following answer to the objections of the psychologists, “...when you have ceased to compare so the mind is alone, clear and no longer influenced, controlled or compelled either by modern psychology or ancient edits, then you will find out whether or not there is something new... it demands a drastic cutting away of all the things that you have read or been told about truth or God.” The objection to psychic science by many scientists (in addition to the many fake demonstrations) is that it relies too much on inner observation and on private sensations. The inaccessibility of such observation and sensations to others is invoked to dismiss this whole area as inherently subjective and not amenable to any process of verification that could be called objective or scientific (Krishnamurti (2000) p.xxxiiff). This is also the basic objection about Buddhist supramundane states as in Sutra number 111 Anupada Sutta, One By One As they Occurred (Buddha (1995) p.899). Similarly, a human existing in a state of pure Being, the experience of other planes of existence, and psychic science are declared as ineligible for scientific research. However, Krishnamurti guides us, “ Essentially, they are what being alive means. To throw fresh light on quality of mind we all need, first, doubt, questions, challenges, and second, test what [you think or what someone says] by practice.” In any case we cannot allow these disagreements and points of view to continue to block progress in psychical science (Krishnamurti (2000)p. xxxii ff).

5. What is Reality, physical science or psychical science?

Are ideas reality? They are real enough to initiate the inventions of technology. Is information reality? It can be the basis of vast industries. Is mass reality? The science priests declare mass is equivalent to energy packets, wave packets, and other mathematical entities. They proclaim that matter is composed of empty space with negligible amounts of mass. Heisenberg’s famous Uncertainty Principle undermined the concept of well determined physical measurements. Schrödinger based his famous equation on probabilities of a particle existing at an infinite number of locations simultaneously. These are strange ideas about reality that are accepted by most scientists.

What do the priests in organized religion declare about reality? The answer has to do with God. A Buddhist priest says Buddha Nature is real. But to sense Buddha Nature you have to be trained for many years, read certain books, ponder, withdraw from society, from thinking, and from sense data. This is analogous to training for a Ph.D. in physics or an M.D. in medicine. Each group has its interpretation of reality and declares the others are deluded. All agree there is something not detected by the senses and that sense data leads to illusion. Because not everyone agrees, we could conclude there is no objective world external to one’s body. Since there is no objective world, the Reader is empowered to create the laws and hypotheses of psychic science. Practitioners of psychic science claim that psychic phenomena have a basis in reality just as practitioners in other fields claim phenomena have a basis in reality.

6. What are Some Examples of Psychic Phenomena?

Certain observations are classified as psychic phenomena such as the following. Sensing at a distance farther than the usual distance that is limited by the senses. Another psychic phenomena is a person’s point of view, sometimes called consciousness, from outside that person’s body.

This article considers another psychic phenomenon: Knowledge of an entire past or future process (a series of changes in matter) in a duration of time which is called, “the Long View.” It is also called the Visionary Gift. It is accessing the fifth dimension, t5, the second dimension of time.

A fundamental question in psychic science is, “What is the definition of psychic phenomena?” We have five limited senses that are accepted in the consensus reality. Is it possible that psychic phenomena are merely sense data that are available to certain people who have more than five senses? Klimo describes an expanded point of view, “...all things physically real are rather, in fact, emergent epiphenomena arising from and dependent upon the causal ground of a transpersonal consciousness held with respect to which our local individual human consciousness and inner lives are but infinitesimal versions, or projections” (Klimo (2008) p.65). This sounds as if we are embedded in a psychic field of transpersonal consciousness. In this context, the definition of psychic phenomena contains any projection, however limited, of the causal ground. This includes the sensing of time, which is beyond the consensus reality.There is a type of person who senses the Long View of time. Such a person is called a visionary. Sensing the Long View can be classified as a psychic phenomenon. Why is the Long View a psychic phenomenon? One property of the Long View is that not everyone can sense it. Consider the limited mind or mental state that cannot conceive of the Long View. Consider a mind that cannot grasp, in one single mental construct, an entire time sequence of a process such as a boat moving from island A to island B over a period of hours or days. Malinowski describes such a mental state when discussing “The Power of Words in Magic: Some Linguistic Data” in Argonauts of the Western Pacific, (Malinowski(1922) p. 454). ,...if natives could furnish us with correct, explicit and consistent accounts of their tribal organization customs and ideas, there would be no difficulty in ethnographic work. Unfortunately, the native can neither get outside his tribal atmosphere and see it objectively, [See Schrödinger’s ‘principle of objectivation’ above] nor if he could, would he have intellectual and linguistic means sufficient to express it ... the ethnographer has to collect data... to study the behavior of the native... and to construct his synthesis [of the tribal organization process and customs].” Malinowski turned his senses at a right angle to the entire tribal organization process in time and space to formulate the Long View of a yearly cycle of sailing boats from one island to another. The islanders did not have the capacity to perceive through the Long View, t5. But Malinowski did have this psychic ability. This Long View is the subject of his book.

Levy described the psychic construct of two reference times in “The Concept of Time” (Levy (2004) p.57) “...perceptual time[t4], which is confined to the perpetually shifting NOW of the present, and the conceptual time [t5l which includes all periods of time in which events we call past, present and future can be fixedly related.” He also defined a more fundamental notion of time linked to space and memory in “Time and Space” The perception of length takes time “...space is linked to time and time to the memory of successive perceptions, granting the real existence of a retentive faculty [retinal retention gives the perception of a blur of a moving visual object]. In “Time and Timelessness: Duration and the Notion of Time” (Levy (2004) p.59), Levy wrote, “ we experience duration only in states characterized by the succession of thoughts. Time is therefore the object of consciousness: time has no existence unless we are thinking of it and our concept of time is based on ideas of past, present and future ... consciousness is ever in the present ... thought is usually [conceived as] the objectification of consciousness [but it is not actually consciousness] ... Time, the thought of succession, is one such objectification of consciousness.” Levy points out that we measure time by observing natural movement like the sun. observing requires the memories of successive sun locations. Were it not for memories, our thought of time would fade into the experience of pure Being, as it does whenever mental activity ceases.... We can realize timelessness as pure changeless Being.” In “Past, Present and Future,” Levy gives examples of speech that do not include the concept of past and future. So the expression, “In the past, I did [something]” means “I am at present conscious of a thought called a memory of [something]” (Levy (2004) p.63). Krishnamurti explores similar ways of thinking without the concept of past and future in “Thought is Time” in To Be Human (Krishnamurti (2000) p. 77 87). These ideas are included to open the Reader’s mental constructs to alternate conceptions of time.

7. What is the Visionary Gift?

The usual notion of time, t4 the fourth dimension, is a person observing the changes in sense data; the leaves moving in the wind, the changing location of a baseball. Most people can see a blur when a mass has a fast motion. This is called retinal retention. If a person had a long retinal retention, she could contain in short term memory the entire blur of a horse running a 5 minute race. Some people can keep in mind the stages of a child growing up until the moment of remembering this progression. Historians can keep in mind at one time, the events leading up to a war. The Long View, t5, is simultaneously conceiving an entire past or future process as a series of changes in matter during time, t4, as the perception in one state of mind, The Long View may include the effect that will be caused by the foregoing t5 process. The gift of the Long View of the past or future process in time is considered a psychic phenomenon. Some examples of when some people can the view of an extended set of changes in a duration of time is given in the Appendix A. In brief, the Long View occurs when a person can hold in his mind an entire history of events leading to a result at some pertinent time, which may include the future. Not everyone can do this.

Is it a psychic phenomenon if a person can be taught to do it? Yes, it is a phenomenon that takes place entirely in the mind with the aid of the brain. Is it psychic if it can be described mathematically? Yes, the mathematics is just another way to describe a mental function in an accurate way. Ordinary time, t4 is a scalar and the direction of the time vector F4 is defined by the vector product of two space unit vectors, j X P, = f4 equation(l) The direction of t4 is a right angle to both j and R. Similar definitions are stated of t5 below. It can be proven that vector algebra is an accurate and sufficient mathematical framework for describing physical phenomena in times t4, t5.

The scalar time t5 quantity changes in a direction with respect to the origin of the frame of reference. So it is a vector, f5. Define the unit vector in the reference time t5 direction as i5. Most of the properties of T5 are the same as T4. Except the direction of the unit vector is defined as k 3z f4 = f5 equation(2) At a right angle to both k and t4. See “The Psychical Experience of Time Described in the Tibetan Book of the Dead: Mathematical Definitions and Practical Examples” (Howard, Kelleher (2008) p,25 38) for the detailed description of these simple descriptions of time. Notice that the Long View is a practice that is psychic and intangible, and it can be sensed and measured. What does the Reader hypothesize as the mechanism and natural order of extrasensory perception including visionary knowledge such as the Long View? Is it defined in terms of the psychic field? There is a trend to ask these kinds of questions. There are new fields that lead to a cooperation between traditional science and the spiritual and psychic sciences. For stimulation to write the laws and hypotheses of psychic science, see (Newberg, D’Aquili (1990,1999)); (Radin (1997,2006));(Zukav (2001)); (Davies, Gribbin(1992)); (Haisch(2006)).

8. Conclusions

Rather then be limited, we want to open up our minds to build up our culture. We want a more profound and higher understanding. We want a mental attitude that can look within to the undiscovered psychic senses and psychic abilities. We want to discover the laws of psychic science and use them to gain understanding. Psychical science is supported by a vast database of experiences. Perceptions of another dimension of time, t5, is psychical phenomena. Two or more dimensions of time can be used mathematically and conceptually to develop falsifiable or verifiable hypotheses of psychical science.

9. Recommendations

Expand on the descriptions of time proposed herein to include verifiable and falsifiable experiments. Describe events mathematically in five dimensions. Answer the following questions. Is the psychic field an emergent property of the neural matrix of the nervous system? How does it emerge as more than the sum of its physical parts? Is it defined by measurements of extra sensory perception? Is the vivacity, the vital essence of living beings, an emergent property of neural matrix of the nervous system? How does it emerge as more than its parts? What organizes the life functions in a living being to keep it alive? Design experiments to verify your answers. To get a grasp of the problems of inventing an hypothesis, read, The Character of Physical Law (Feynman (1994)) where he pointed out the difficulties in discovering valid physical laws. It is probable the psychic laws are entirely different from physical laws.

Appendix A Practical Examples of How We Use the Second Dimension of Time, t5

This introduction leads to the realization of the everyday use of the second dimension of time, t5. The following examples describe the Reader’s observing an event in a frame of reference, XYZt4 from the view of the frame of reference, X, Y, Z, t4, t5.

1. The Motion Picture Example

Consider a motion picture print. It is composed of many individual frames each one differing from the last one by a small amount. Each frame has two lengths, Y, top to bottom of frame, and, Z, side to side. Each frame would be viewed for a duration Δt4 = 0.01 sec. It is meant to be viewed one frame at a time and takes 5 minutes to see all frames, one at a time. The filmstrip could be considered to be a stack of pictures. Or the entire length of the filmstrip could be viewed at once by unrolling it and laying it on the floor. The viewer turns 90’ to the entire filmstrip to see it all at once. Then the 5 minutes of action can be seen at one quantum of time (a duration At5) of approximately 1 sec. As a mental tool to aid the imagination, consider that the moving picture print moves thru the projector very fast so the images become blurred. The Reader could still perceive the blurred picture. The picture is movements on a screen with Y and Z lengths of objects on the screen changing in t4; these are movements of the three dimensional things represented in the moving picture. The Reader could make the print move through the projector in 1 sec., the duration of time, Δt5. The Reader has just mentally used vector algebra to move the perception to view from a frame of reference of reality that includes t5. In viewing from the frame of reference x, y, z, t4, t5, the sense data only includes Y, Z, and t4. From the view of x, y, z, t4, t5, the reader can perceive a duration of Δt4 of 5 minutes, in one second of At5 including all the physical changes in lengths Y and Z. Again, the five minute long duration of time, Δt4, (when Δt4 is much longer than the passing of one second of time, the quantum, Δt5) is perceived at once in a small one second duration of Δt5.

When the Reader expands this concept of the change in t4 to include also the change in as viewed from t5, then he or she has the concept of a frame of reference with two time dimensions. This point of view was given to the Tralfamidorians by Kurt Vonnegut in Slaughterhouse Five (Vonnegut (1969))

2. Example from playing a musical instrument and reading sheet music

The Reader starts b listening to music. Since the mental function of NOW is limited to a skort duration of Δt4, only a short duration of the music is heard, or perceived, during about one second of Δt4. Let all the notes be whole notes with one beat per note. All that went before NOW is not being heard any more. If the reader is looking at a picture of the note being played on a sheet of music, this optical sense data would be about a second long. [Refer to any sheet music and musical notes ]

Consider a mental experiment. The Reader turns the sheet of music to look edgewise along the paper. The direction of the reader’s view is along the plane of the paper in the direction that the music is read. The reader can only see the immediate note in front of the eyes. This is what the musician focuses on, At4. So it would be a slice of the sheet music as long as a whole note on the page looking in the direction which a musician scans down the page. Now if the Reader turns the page at a right angle, he or she can see the entire page of music at one time, in Δt5. All the past notes could be seen, and also the whole note being played during the second of music being perceived in the NOW. And also, the future notes yet to be played would be perceived all at the same time. In turning the page to look from the perpendicular, the reader has changed his or her frame of reference for perception from X, Y, Z, t4, to X, Y, Z, t4,t5. In a reality that includes the five dimensional frame of reference, t5, the Reader would hear all the notes on the entire sheet at once, as though there were a separate instrument for each note playing simultaneously.

See three more examples of how to use the second dimension of time. (Howard & Kelleher (2008)P.37fo.

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